Prophet Dawud alaihissalam was one of the righteous people of Banu Israel who joined the army of Banu Israel when he was a very young boy. He was among those who agreed upon fighting with the people of Jerusalem to capture the Holy land as commanded by ALLAH SWT.
Prophet Dawud alaihissalam is known as David by Jewish. He was born in Jerusalem in the 10th century BCE. Like other Prophets, Prophet Dawud alaihissalam was a beloved Prophet of ALLAH SWT, and ALLAH SWT bestowed Him with miraculous powers and great strength. He was the one who established the rules of Almighty ALLAH on earth.
Prophet Dawud alaihissalam is mentioned 16 times by his name in different chapters of the Quran in various narrations.
The Holy book Zubur (Psalms) was revealed on Dawud alaihissalam.
“And your Lord knows best all who are in the heavens and the earth. And indeed, We have preferred some of the Prophets above others, and to Dawud (David) We gave the Zabur (Psalms)” (Quran 17:55)
ALLAH SWT gifted Him with the best voice like no one ever had and whenever he recited the Zubur and praised ALLAH SWT, all the birds used to get assembled around him and join in praising ALLAH SWT. And even the plants and the mountains would enjoy and join him in Praising the almighty ALLAH.
It is mentioned in the Quran that ALLAH SWT says: “We truly subjected the mountains to hymn Our praises along with Him in the evening and after sunrise” (Quran 38:18)
“And the birds were assembled, all with him repeating praises” (Quran 38:19)
Prophet Dawud alaihissalam was the first one to whom ALLAH SWT made skilled in making weapons and armors from iron. ALLAH SWT blessed him with a miracle by which he could melt iron in his hands and mold it into weapons and armors.
ALLAH SWT mentions in Surah Saba: And certainly, We gave Dawud bounty from Us (and said), ‘O mountains! Repeat Our praises with him, and the birds you too’. And we softened for him iron, (saying) ‘Make wide coats of mail, and measure well the links and do righteous deeds. Surely I am Seer of what you do.” (Quran 34:10-11)
Prophet Dawud alaihissalam used to pray during the nights and used to fast every alternated day. He divided his night into parts for prayers and sleep.
In an authentic Hadees, Prophet Muhammad SAW said: “The most loved Salat (prayer) in the sight of ALLAH SWT is the Salat of Dawud and the most loved of Saum (fasting) in the sight of ALLAH SWT is the Saum of Dawud. He used to sleep for the first half of the night and offer prayer for one-third of it and sleep (again) for one-sixth of it. And he used to observe fast on alternate days. And when he encountered an enemy he never fled.” (Bukhari)
ALLAH SWT also bestowed Him with the ability to understand the language of birds and animals.
The strength and wisdom of Prophet Dawud alaihissalam are mentioned through various narrations in the Holy Quran.
One of the incidents of His strength and submission to ALLAH SWT at a very young age is mentioned in the Quran in Surah Baqarah.
So they defeated them by permission of Allah, and David killed Goliath, and Allah gave him the kingship and wisdom [i.e., prophethood] and taught him from that which He willed. And if it were not for Allah checking [some] people through others, the earth would have been corrupted, but Allah is the possessor of bounty for the worlds. (Quran 2:251 )
After Prophet Musa Alaihissalam died, the Israelites became very ill-mannered and disbelievers. To make them realize their disobedience and stubbornness, and to remind them to turn to ALLAH, ALLAH SWT put them on a trial by appointing one of the worst and most terrible tyrants as their leader named Jalut(Goliath). Banu Israel was exhausted with the humiliation and continuous wars and defeats in the kingdom of Jalut.
After many years of trials, Talut was selected to be the king of Banu Israel by ALLAH SWT. Talut was a farmer, and he was submissive, strong, and a wise man.
Talut had very limited people and arms in his army however, Jalut possessed a huge, strong, and fully equipped army. Both the armies were set to fight. Banu Israel got horrified seeing the size of Jalut’s army.
King Talut declared that whoever kills Jaloot will get married to his daughter.
Nobody dared to go in front and start the fight and at this time a young boy came forward saying I will fight Jalut. Talut refused to let him go as He was very young. However, the boy insisted to let him go and said, I killed a lion last night so I can fight with Jalut. That brave young boy was Prophet Dawud alaihissalam.
Talut agreed and made him wear the armor to commence the fight. Prophet Dawud alaihissalam felt it hard to go with the armor as He was so young and skinny. Dawud alaihissalam faced Jalut with no weapons or swords but a slingshot and few pebbles. He prayed to ALLAH SWT to help him and was ready to kill Jalut.
He shot with his slingshot and the pebble got straight to Jalut’s forehead. He was hit so hard that he immediately fell with blood gushing from his forehead and he was found dead in seconds.
The army of Jalut got terrified seeing their leader die in seconds. The Banu Israel then won the battle with the Philistine army by the will and help of ALLAH SWT even though they were very few in numbers and were barely equipped.
Dawud alaihissalam then entered the holy land of Jerusalem with his family and other righteous people.
As promised, Talut married his daughter to Prophet Dawud alaihissalam. Also, Talut appointed Dawud alaihissalam as the commander of his army.
The wisdom, greatness, and humbleness of Prophet Dawud alaihissalam started increasing among everyone with time. The love and prominence that prophet Dawud alaihissalam was getting from people made Talut jealous and he started envying Dawud alaihissalam.
This fire of jealously grew so intense that Talut made plans to kill Him. Talut sent Dawud alaihissalam to send him for dangerous wars so that he may be killed by the enemies however, Prophet Dawud alaihissalam won every battle with the help of ALLAH SWT.
When Prophet Dawud alaihissalam got to know about Talut’s plan, He left the place with His family the same night and sheltered in a cave. Many other people also took shelter with him in the cave. Prophet Dawud alaihissalam then went to the neighboring kingdom of Palestine along with his people.
Talut attacked Palestine as soon as he came to know about this. He died in this battle and his soldiers fled from there. Prophet Dawud alaihissalam was the king of Palestine now and after the death of Samuel alaihissalam, ALLAH SWT granted him with Prophethood.
Prophet Dawud alaihissalam ruled Palestine for 40 years with peace and harmony. He spent 7 years in Hebron and 33 years in Al-Quds (Jerusalem).
Prophet Dawud alaihissalam started to rebuild masjid Al- Aqsa which was lay in ruins and it was a big project however, He could not complete it and passed away.
Later His son Prophet Sulaiman alaihissalam completed rebuilding Masjid Al-Aqsa.
Prophet Dawud alaihissalam lived for one hundred years.